LOW-LATENCY COMMUNICATION

The key to truly distributable control

Imperix RealSync network and protocol

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam maximus cursus.

How much is low-latency?

In power electronics, lorem ipsum nectu ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignis

BENEFITS OF STANDARDIZED POWER ELECTRONIC BUILDING BLOCKS

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam ec viverra lectus.

Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapieam maximus cursus.

PEBB-based power converter design

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverrapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

Modularization of power stages

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverrapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

Scalability up to high power applications

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverrapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

Background and requirements

Modular control for modular power converters

Single-wire communcation over optical fiber is of the essence

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverrapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

CLOSING FAST CONTROL LOOPS ANYWHERE ACROSS THE NETWORK
Edit or remove this text inline or in the module Content settings. You can also style every aspect of this content in the module Design settings and even apply custom CSS to this text in the module Advanced settings.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur

Fast local control loops

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum.

Fast global control loops

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum.

BULLSHIT FOR KEYWORD STUFFING

STATE OF THE ART

Existing networked control technologies

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Pellentesque eu finibus justo. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos.

Sed tristique ornare erat quis blandit. Maecenas sit amet sapien tortor. Phasellus pulvinar dignissim fringilla. Nam venenatis elit non justo luctus faucibus. Curabitur id commodo ipsum, nec molestie nisi. Praesent imperdiet enim ut arcu suscipit fermentum.

Aliquam orci odio, suscipit viverra gravida sagittis, dignissim in tortor. Aenean elementum augue in est rutrum, vulputate mollis dolor mattis. Nunc diam ipsum, posuere sit amet ante eget, lobortis congue orci. Suspendisse potenti. Praesent vel ullamcorper purus.

Imperix RealSync network and protocol

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam maximus cursus.

  • Low latency (170 ns node latency)
  • High synchronization accuracy of ± 1.5 ns
  • Independent read and write payloads for each node, configurable at run-time (max 32 kBytes)
  • Usable with all tree topologies (n-tree)
  • Up to 4096 addressable devices
  • Fast gather / scatter DMA access for CPUs
  • Hot-pluggable)
ethercatmassachusetts institute of technologyetherneteth zürichimperix
EtherCATPESnetCust. EthernetSyCCoRealSync
Medium speed125 Mbps125 Mbps1.25 Gbps1.25 Gbps6.6 Gbps
Intended net. topologyRingRingAny (eg. mesh)RingTree / pyramid
Best synchronisation± 1 μs / ± 20 ns± 40 ns± 4 ns (SyncE)± 4 ns± 2.0 ns
Typ. node latency> μs< μs> μs< μs< μs
Typ. number of nodes10 < x < 1000< 5010 < x < 1000< 502 < x < 5000

TECHNOLOGY INSIGHT

CHANGE OF PARADIGM IN SERIAL COMMUNICATION

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam ec viverra lectus.

Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapieam maximus cursus.

We’ve observed that FPGA technology is progressing even faster than optical fiber communication.
This offers game-changing opportunities for ultra-low-latency transfers, which we are exploiting.

B. Steinamm

Lead FPGA engineer, imperix Ltd, Switzerland

Increased FPGA performance for faster packets processing

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

Xilinx Aurora with specialized packet switching

Blabla 8b10b, 1 clock tick at 250MHz, etc…
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nu

PESnetSyCCoRealSync
Speed125 Mbps1.25 Gbps6.6 Gbps
DNL460 ns390 ns170 ns

x 3
Frame efficiency89 %97 %80 %
DPT2880 ns264 ns61 ns

x 47
DNL / DPT0.161.362.79

x 17

Technology insight

Using the most effective networking topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam ec viverra lectus.

Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapieam maximus cursus.

RING NETWORK

1-tree (1 slave per node)

DAISY-CHAIN

1-tree (1 slave per node)

RADIAL NETWORK

2-tree (2 slaves per node)

Introducing the concept of topology efficiency

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien.
Proin a felis diam maximus cursus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapieam maximus cursus.

Thanks to our unique tree-shaped control network, we can take the most of the improved DNL / DPT ratio, in other words, of the newest FPGA technology. N. Cherix

Chief of engineering, imperix Ltd, Switzerland

Topology is indifferent for very large payloads 2-tree is more than 2x better for 25-40 Bytes!

Conventional high-speed serial communication

  • Low DNL / DPT
  • 1-tree network topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

Imperix RealSync communication network

  • High DNL / DPT
  • 2-tree network topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis diam maximus cursus.

Low-latency data exchange

key performance figures

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam ec viverra lectus.

Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapieam maximus cursus.

6.6 Gbps, N8
Getting the most from the network topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam maximus cursus.

6.6 Gbps, 2-tree
Getting the most from the network topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam maximus cursus.

BULLSHIT FOR KEYWORD STUFFING

Additional benefits of real sync

REALSYNC IS FULL-DUPLEX

Getting the most from the network topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectulacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id binia nunc, et tempus lectus.

Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam maximus cursus..

BASIC SAMPLING SCENARIO

DOUBLE RATE SAMPLING SCENARIO

REALSYNC PROVIDES SYNCHRONIZATION

Getting the most from the network topology

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectulacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id binia nunc, et tempus lectus.

Distributed converter control implementation

Application examples

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL OF MMC

Distributed inverter controll

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus:

  • Each master has its CPU operating
  • FPGAs are tied to their respective masters
  • All units are natively and perfectly synchronized
  • All data exchanges use SFP+ (galvanically-isolating fibers)

DISTRIBUTED DRIVES

Distributed inverter controll

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus:

  • Each master has its CPU operating
  • FPGAs are tied to their respective masters
  • All units are natively and perfectly synchronized
  • All data exchanges use SFP+ (galvanically-isolating fibers)

technology background

realsync & white rabbit

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nectus. Cras ac lacinia nunc, et tempus lectus. Nunc magna tellus, ultrices id bibendum et, aliquam at sapien. Proin a felis dignissim diam ec viverra lectus.

Realsync is a

Time distribution
Low latency communication.
technology
What RealSync is

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectulacinia nunc, et tempus lectus.

What it is not

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris nec viverra lectulacinia nunc, et tempus lectus.

Realsync
  • High accuracy (< 50ns)
  • Data must arrive quickly (control)
  • Few network topologies only
  • Redundancy is simple
White Rabbit
  • Extreme accuracy (< 1ns)
  • Only bandwith matters (monitoring)
  • Network topology is unrestricted
  • Redundancy is IT-type

The tremendous synchronization performance of CERN’s White Rabbit technology is not (yet) needed for power electronics. However, we had to push for much lower latencies, which is what matters for our customers and applications. S. Delalay

CEO, imperix Ltd, Switzerland